Prediction of Self-Control Based on Cognitive Intelligence and Socio-Emotional Behavior Assessments in Early Childhood
Purpose: The infrastructure core of self-control, as an indicator of future success, is unsettled. To better investigate the nature of self-control, and strengthening it, it is necessary to know to what extent is self-control based on cognitive or socio-emotional abilities?
Materials and Methods: The authors measured the cognitive intelligence and socio-emotional behavior of 377 healthy Iranian children (girl=46.1%) by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) and Kindergarten Inventory of Social-Emotional Tendencies (KIST) at the age range of 42-66 months (mean=54.86, SD=5.88). Then, they assessed their Self-control competency 18 months later, to know which component of WPPSI or KIST could better predict Self-control.
Results:.The correlation matrix between all study variables shows that there are more positive significant correlations among Self-control with KIST subsets (5/6) than WPPSI subsets (2/10). The results of automatic linear modelling show that the significant predictors of self-control in the total model (R2=0.161) were Hyperactivity-Maladaptive Behavior (HMB(, (coefficient=.137, importance=0.781), and Daily Living Skills (DLS) (coefficient=.127, importance=0.125), so HMB is the best predictor of self-control among the subsets examined in our research. Therefore, self-control is more related to the socio-emotional than cognitive domain.
Conclusion: We suggest children who get a low score in socio-emotional assessments, need early supportive intervention and rehabilitation to prevent the maldevelopment of self-control.