A Low-Power and Wide Dynamic Range Digital Pixel Sensor for Intrinsic Optical Imaging in Image-Guided Neurosurgery and Neocortical Epilepsy
Purpose: Determining the borders of brain tumors, seizure foci, and their elimination in patients with brain tumors is very important in preventing cancer recurrence. Multispectral Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging (MS-OISI) image-guided neurosurgery using visible-Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelengths have shown great potential for image-guided neurosurgery. One of the main challenges is the need for low-power consumption, high-speed and above 100dB dynamic range to capture both visible and NIR photons. The overarching goal of this work is to create a Digital Pixel Sensor (DPS) as a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) camera for MS-OISI of the brain in image-guided neurosurgery that has a wide dynamic range, low power consumption, and high speed.
Materials and Methods: The general view of neurosurgical system, DPS, and circuit operation of conventional Pulsed Frequency Modulation (PFM) DPS are given first. The proposed PFM DPS and circuit implementation are shown, as well as simulation results obtained using a circuit simulator. Finally, a comparison with other similar works is given.
Results: The proposed pixel simulation results show that the performance parameters such as dynamic range and power consumption has improved in comparison to similar works. However, due to its complicated circuitry, it has a low spatial resolution, which can be compensated.
Conclusion: The image sensor is post-layout simulated in 0.18μm CMOS technology with a 1.3V supply voltage, resulting in 140dB dynamic range and 7.69μW power dissipation with a 11% fill factor. The key novelty for the proposed PFM DPS is: in-pixel Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), using a low voltage and high-speed dynamic comparator. Furthermore, this work uses a self-reset mechanism, which eliminates the need for an external pulse source, as well as variable reference voltage, which eliminates the necessity for a global constant reference voltage. All of these features demonstrate the excellent potential of the proposed pixel for MS-OISI image-guided neurosurgery.