Adverse Effects of Long-Term Ice-Cold Water Drink on Rat Liver Function and Histology

  • Said Abdul Ghafour Saeedy
  • Ahmad Faisal Faiz
  • Marjan Nikbakhtzadeh
  • Bagher Minaei Zangi
  • Mansoor Keshavarz
Keywords: Lifestyle; Ice-cold water; Liver; NAFLD; Lipid level; Lipoproteins


Drinking ice-cold water is prohibited in Avicenna’s “The Canon of Medicine” book in which he emphasized that ice-cold water drinking was hazardous for the body organs such as the liver. Little information can be found regarding the effects of ice-cold fluid drinks on liver and its probable sequels on this vital organ. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of long-term ice-cold water drink on the rat liver function and histology. Eighteen male Wistar rats, weighing 180±20 g, were randomly divided into three groups of six as two months ice-cold water drink, CW2M; three months ice-cold water drink, CW3M; and three months room temperature water drink; control group. Upon completion of the care period, a blood sample has been taken for liver enzymes and lipid profile assessment. Liver tissue has also been used for histological studies of H&E staining and microscopic examination. Histological findings showed hepatocellular micro-vesicle formation, necrosis and derangement of the cellular cords and infiltration of Kupffer cells in ice-cold water taken animals. Serum TGs, VLDL-C and ALP significantly increased with sound decrease in FBS and LDL-C in ice-cold water taken animals. It seems that long-term ice-cold water has deleterious functional and structural effects on the liver.