A Review on the Clinical Symptoms and Treatment Methods of Human Hookworm Infections

  • Mahdi Shooraj Student Research Committee, Amol School of Paramedical Sciences, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
  • Seif Ali Mahdavi Department of Paramedicine, Amol School of Paramedical Sciences, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
Keywords: Clinical symptoms; Hookworm; Infection; Treatment


Introduction: Hookworm infection has overwhelmed human beings for ages and there are explanations about helminths in the primary medicinal manuscripts from 1500 BC. Hookworm is one of the immense three Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) (Ascaris Lumbricoides, Trichuris Trichiura, and hookworm). The goal of this study is to review the prevailing studies on Hookworm infection, clinical symptoms, prevention and treatment to examine different findings in this dominion.

Material and Methods: In the present investigation, the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, IranDoc and SID were examined from 2000 to 2021 and related articles were reviewed.

Results: Review of related investigations revealed that nearly, 2 billion individuals are affected with these helminths around the world and the infection encumbrance might approach malaria. Hookworm infection diagnosis relies on fecal trials, either microscopic or molecular. This infection causes intestinal blood loss, which lead to anemia. In this regard, school-aged children and pregnant women are individuals at the highest risk of infections.

Conclusion: Several aspects such as warm and moist environment, polluted water supply, and poor hygiene affect transmission rate. Besides, some risk factors such as agricultural occupation, barefoot walking, exposure to infected soil, poor environmental sanitation, low socioeconomic background, poor personal hygiene, host age, genetics, and nutritional aspects affect both STH transmission and infection. Clinical symptoms of hookworm contagions are frequently non-specific and could be confusing. Thus, attention to the epidemiology, clinical factors, and laboratory results are significant for examination process. Now more than ever, new plans are needed to regulate hookworm and other STH infections