Effects of Combined Binaural Beats on Sleep Quality, Insomnia Severity, and Sleep Hygiene Improvement in Insomniac Students

  • Seyed Mohamadreza Shalforoushan Department of Clinical Psychology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran
  • Zahra Bagherzadeh Golmakani Department of Clinical Psychology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran
Keywords: Insomnia; Sleep; Sleep hygiene; Students


Background and Objective: In previous studies, multiple interventions to improve sleep quality were suggested in students with insomnia based on different results. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of combined binaural beat treatment on improving sleep quality in students with insomnia

Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, which included all students living in Neyshabur, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran, in 2020. In terms of inclusion criteria, 34 students (12 women) were assigned randomly into two control (n = 17) and experimental groups (n = 17). A combined binaural beat treatment (α, θ, and δ) and sleep hygiene guidelines were given to the experimental group, but the control group only received the same sleep hygiene guidelines. Insomnia Severity Index, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were research instruments for this purpose. The results were analyzed with SPSS software.

Results: The effect of the combined binaural beats on ISI (F = 31.16, P < 0.001), sleep hygiene (F = 39.15, P < 0.001), and sleep quality (F = 14.15, P < 0.001) of students with insomnia was apparent during multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The highest and lowest effects on the total value of sleep (effect size = 0.58) and the SHI (effect size = 0.35) were achieved by combined binaural beat treatment.

Conclusion: The combined binaural beats (α, θ, and δ) improve total sleep quality, sleep hygiene, and ISI of students with insomnia. Besides, such a treatment can be utilized as a modern non-invasive intervention.