COVID-19: Global Trends and Possible Causes of Disease

  • Hira Maqsood Student of Health Management, Institute of Health Management, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: Covid-19; Immunity; Inhabitancy


Background and Purpose: Covid-19 has infected large proportion of the populaces, and the continuous rise in incidence impelled the declaration of pandemic. The present study expatiated the trends in Covid-19, and explored the significance of immunity and inhabitancy, as well as the possible causes of the pandemic.

Materials and Methods: This ecological study recruited twenty States enduring gruelling trends in the incidence of Covid-19 by 30 September 2020. Each State was selected using non-random non-probability sampling. Incorporate data excerpted both primary and secondary sources, browsed using PubMed, DOIA, and Google Search Engine. The analysis began by contrasting the healthy life expectancy, against the Covid-19 incidence rate. Following that, the researcher assessed the incidence inconsideration to populaces' immunity and inhabitancy profile. Immunity is determined by general hygiene, food sufficiency, and daily sleep hours. While air pollution, UV-radiations, and temperature attributes inhabitancy. Both immunity and inhabitancy profiles were evaluated by forming clusters. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Software, version 16.

Result:  The findings positively associated healthy life expectancy to Covid-19 incidence rate (r=0.02), which meant that the nations indexed high on health profile, and reported high incidence rate. The cluster-1 analysis corroborated the association of nations' hygiene practice (r =-0.34) and food sufficiency (r =-0.08) to a relatively low incidence rate. Whereas, low concentration of air pollution (r=-0.5) in territories played relatively insignificant role in the outbreak and outgrowth of disease. However, cluster-2 observed convincing figures in torrid regions, abided by intense UV-radiation(r=-0.15) and high temperature (r=-0.48). The complete evaluation of data showed the significance of immunity, but failed to manifest relationship considering inhabitancy profile, in low incidence of COVID-19.

Conclusion: COVID-19 trends continue to escalate globally, and nations demonstrate high standing on immunity or inhabitancy profile, frequently falling prey to deadly infection. Thus, they pose ambiguity in associating the exact causations, whether poor health or polluted environment are overall reprehensible for the pandemic disease.