The Effects of Vitamin D3 and N-Acetylcysteine Administration in Patients with COVID-19 Hospitalization in the Iranian Population
Background and Aims: In the absence of treatment for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study was conducted to compare the effects of vitamin D3 and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on clinical status indicators in patients with COVID-19 hospitalization in Abadan, Iran.
Materials and Methods: 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection participated in this study. Patients were randomly allocated to four groups: 3 intervention groups and 1 control group. All patients received standard treatment. In addition, the intervention-1 group received NAC tablets and vitamin D3 placebo ampoules. The intervention-2 group received NAC tablets and vitamin D3 ampoules. The intervention-3 group received vitamin D3 ampoules and NAC placebo tablets. The control group received vitamin D3 placebo ampoules and NAC placebo tablets. Symptoms of the disease and clinical status indicators were compared in groups in the baseline and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively.
Results: The trial comparison showed that the incidence of cough, dyspnea, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase in laboratory tests in the NAC-P1 group was lower than in the other three groups (p <0.005). Also, the results showed a significant difference in the length of hospitalization between the four groups. The length of hospitalization was decreased in the NAC-D3 group (p < 0.024).
Conclusion: Based on the results, vitamin D3 supplements and NAC can improve some outcomes in COVID-19 treatment; however, more randomized controlled trial studies are required in this field.