A Review of the Latest Findings of Candida Colonization and Candidiasis in Patients with Psoriasis and Its Management
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease causing raised, scaly patches on the skin, especially the elbows, knees, and scalp due to systemic inflammation. The disease affects more than 125 million people worldwide. Psoriasis is associated with problems such as depression, reduced quality of life, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis has a complex pathogenesis that is not yet fully understood. Many studies have shown the importance of the microbiome for the exacerbation of psoriasis. On the other hand, psoriasis and some other treatments can increase the colonization of some microbial agents in the body. Candida is commensal yeast that forms part of the natural microflora of the skin and mucous membranes. It has been shown that people with psoriasis are susceptible to candidiasis. In this review article, the causes of candidiasis, its diagnosis, and treatment in patients with psoriasis, as well as psoriasis aggravation methods by Candida species have also been investigated. To this end, keywords such as "psoriasis", "candida", " oral candidiasis", "cutaneous candidiasis", "vulvovaginal candidiasis", "epidemiology of Candida" and "balanitis" were searched. Articles published in national and international scientific databases, namely Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, Elsevier databases, Scopus, Science Direct, IranMedex, and SID from 2001 to 2023 were used. Oral candidiasis, cutaneous candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and balanitis are diseases that affect people with psoriasis. On the other. This fungus may aggravate psoriasis through toxin production and activation of T lymphocytes independent of antigen presentation.