The Effect of Anethum Graveolens L. (Dill) on Lipid Profile in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials
Background: Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has assessed the effect of Anethum graveolens L. (AG) or dill supplementation on lipid profile in adults with cardiovascular risk factors with different results. Therefore, we decided to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the available randomized controlled trials to assess AG supplementation's efficacy on lipid profile in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.
Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane's database, Ovid, Web of Science, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant articles investigating the effect of AG on the lipid profile of adults with risk factors for cardiovascular disease up to December 2020. Six trials with seven treatment armsmet the inclusion criteria. A random-effects model was used in the meta-analysis. To test heterogeneity, I2 statistics and Cochrane Q test were applied.
Results: The results reported a significant improving effect of AG on TG [WMD = -29.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): -34.73,-23.68 mg/dL, p < 0.001], TC (WMD = -16.46, 95%CI: -21.54,-11.39 mg/dL, p < 0.001), LDL-C (WMD = -13.90, 95%CI: -16.08, -11.72 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and HDL-C (WMD = 4.01, 95%CI: 3.48, 4.54 mg/dL, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials revealed that consuming AG extract for more than six weeks might improve lipid profile in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.