Invasive candidiasis and candidemia in pediatric and neonatal patients: A review of current guidelines
Several international and national guidelines have been proposed for the treatment and prevention of invasive candidiasis/candidemia (IC/C) in both neonatal and pediatric patients. This article is a review of the current guidelines, recommendations, and expert panel consensus of a number of associations and conferences on the prevention and management of IC and candidemia in both pediatric and neonatal patients. The investigated resources included the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia, the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the German Speaking Mycological Society/Paul-Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy, as well as the Canadian, Middle Eastern, and Australian guidelines. Echinocandins and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) are the first-line agents in the treatment of IC and candidemia both for immunocompetent and immunocompromised pediatric patients. The recommendations suggested to keep patients under sterile conditions for at least 14 days after blood cultures as the prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Guidelines addressing the neonates recommended to use L-AmB, deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB), and fluconazole based on three main principles of no previous exposure to azoles, the prompt initiation of antifungal treatment, and control of predisposing underlying conditions. Despite minor differences among the investigated guidelines, general treatment recommendations suggest the prompt initiation of antifungal treatment and control of all predisposing underlying conditions.